Irrigation and its methods

Gravity irrigation methods are less expensive, but requires more skill and experience to achieve re-scannable efficiency. This method also requires that the land to be irrigated should have a flatter slope, other wise the cost of land leveling and preparation at times be come very high.

Irrigation and its methods

Sandy soils have a low water storage capacity and a high infiltration rate. They therefore need frequent but small irrigation applications, in particular when the sandy soil is also shallow. Under these circumstances, sprinkler or drip irrigation are more suitable than surface irrigation.

On loam or clay soils all three irrigation methods can be used, but surface irrigation is more commonly found. Clay soils with low infiltration rates are ideally suited to surface irrigation. When a variety of different soil types is found within one irrigation scheme, sprinkler or drip irrigation are recommended as they will ensure a more even water distribution.

Sprinkler or drip irrigation are preferred above surface irrigation on steeper or unevenly sloping lands as they require little or no land levelling. An exception is rice grown on terraces on sloping lands. Strong wind can disturb the spraying of water from sprinklers.

Under very windy conditions, drip or surface irrigation methods are preferred. In areas of supplementary irrigation, sprinkler or drip irrigation may be more suitable than surface irrigation because of their flexibility and adaptability to varying irrigation demands on the farm.


Water application efficiency see Annex 4, step 8 is generally higher with sprinkler and drip irrigation than surface irrigation and so these methods are preferred when water is in short supply. However, it must be remembered that efficiency is just as much a function of the irrigator as the method used.

Surface irrigation is preferred if the irrigation water contains much sediment. The sediments may clog the drip or sprinkler irrigation systems. If the irrigation water contains dissolved salts, drip irrigation is particularly suitable, as less water is applied to the soil than with surface methods.

Sprinkler systems are more efficient that surface irrigation methods in leaching out salts. Sprinkler and drip irrigation, because of their high capital investment per hectare, are mostly used for high value cash crops, such as vegetables and fruit trees.

They are seldom used for the lower value staple crops. Drip irrigation is suited to irrigating individual plants or trees or row crops such as vegetables and sugarcane.

It is not suitable for close growing crops e. In general, drip and sprinkler irrigation are technically more complicated methods. The purchase of equipment requires high capital investment per hectare. To maintain the equipment a high level of 'know-how' has to be available.About ITRC The Irrigation Training & Research Center was established in at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, as a center of excellence, building on a history of contributions to the irrigation industry.

Valley® center pivot irrigation systems are the most durable and technologically advanced in the industry. Growers around the world trust Valley® equipment to . The water requirements of a pecan tree is higher than any other nut fruit.

For the survival of the pecan tree during its first year, additional irrigation is usually necessary after approx. every 2 weeks, during a dry watering should be given fairly deep so as to soak the whole area around the roots.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5, years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.

To choose an irrigation method, the farmer must know the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods.

Irrigation and its methods

He or she must know which method suits the local conditions best. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no single best solution: all methods have their advantages and disadvantages.

Testing. Texas ET contains weather information, current and average evapotranspiration data, and irrigation watering recommendations.

Irrigation - Wikipedia