Overview and Resources January 5, — November 27, R Constituent service encompasses a wide array of non-legislative activities undertaken by Members of Congress or congressional staff, and it is commonly considered a representational responsibility.
In90 percent of Bangladesh's total earnings from garment exports came from its exports to the United States and Europe. Bangladesh was expected to suffer the most from the ending of the MFA, as it was expected to face more competition, particularly from China.
However, this was not the case. It turns out that even in the face of other economic giants, Bangladesh's labor is "cheaper than anywhere else in the world. However, this act was temporarily suspended for Bangladesh by President Obama after the Rana Plaza collapse in Of the millions of wage earning children in Bangladesh inalmost all of them worked in the ready-made garment industry.
This number may have been as high as 15 million children. Its impact on Bangladesh's economy would have been significant as the export-oriented ready-made garment industry represents most of the country's exports.
One study estimated that there wereworkers in Energy crisis and pakistan textile mills industry. Estimates from the World Bank put the number of female workers in the industry in the s at 50,; that number was brought up to 2. Bangladesh's flagship export-oriented ready-made garment industry, however, with female labor accounting for 90 percent of the work force, was "built to a large extent, on the supply of cheap and flexible female labor in the country.
This has given women the chance to be financially independent and have a voice in the family because now they contribute financially. Most women come from low income families.
Low wage of women workers and their compliance have enabled the industry to compete with the world market. Women are paid far less than men mainly due to their lack of education. But, pressure from buyers to abide by labor codes has enabled factories to maintain satisfactory working conditions.
The first protests broke out inand since then, there have been periodic protests by the workers. Many textile factories in Bangladesh often compromise worker health and safety because of the tough pressure from the ordering companies to make tight deadlines.
Management will often push workers in order to ensure that an order is fulfilled. This poses a problem as workers have almost no avenues with which to file a complaint.
Almost none of the factories have any sort of human resources department and local officials often turn a blind eye to violations.
Without any structure like a formalized union, many lack the ability to speak of injustices either from lack of knowledge or fear of losing economic security. The scenario becomes worse when it comes to women workers. The female workers are exposed to different occupational health hazards such as work environment hazards, physical hazards and mental hazards.
The work environment hazards include long working hours, absence of leave facilities, congested and overcrowded working conditions, absence of health facilities and safety measures, absence of staff amenities, lack of safe drinking water. On the other hand, the physical hazards include exposures to toxic agents, awkward postures and repetitive motion.
Exposure to sexual, verbal and psychological harassment and violence at their work places are the some of the common mental health hazards.
These complaints are related to highly repetitive movements, awkward postures in seated positions, repetitive hand and arm movements, prolonged working hours without adequate breaks and poorly designed work stations. These risk factors result in adverse health outcomes of the workers such as musculoskeletal complaints of neck, back, hands, shoulders and lower limbs.
This results in strain on the neck and back, and eventually to pain. The flattened lumbar spine may cause back fatigue, disc degeneration and back injuries. Sarder and colleagues found that seats in garment factories were devoid of a backrest, which would allow intermittent short breaks for resting the upper body from bending.
Moreover, workers experience excessive hand work that involves gripping and pinching with the arm in constrained postures which causes wrist pain. Sewing machine operators are involve in highly repetitive movements of the elbows and wrists. Minimizing ergonomic risk factors through ergonomic intervention for workers is often neglected in many of the countries.
Thus, there are high rate of musculoskeletal symptoms in different body parts among sewing machine operators which points out for proper interventions. To reduce awkward posture for the neck, back and shoulders, the sewing machine table, chair and paddle positions should be adjusted considering the worker's body height in a sitting position.
The workers should be educated about the significance of postures on their health so that they do not neglect the instructions. The following recommendations can be implemented as solutions to reduce burden of musculoskeletal disorders among worker in the garment industries: Even though there are labor laws maintaining occupational health and safety, the overall standards are low due to the laxity of labor laws enforcement, and the owners not taking responsibility for maintaining and optimizing working conditions.
The foremost initiative is the establishment of the policies in the garments factories and monitor them by a committee represented by both employers and employee. Proper storage and handling of heavy materials can play important role to reduce musculoskeletal issues.Latest Govt Jobs in Pakistan, Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad.
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Find the latest business news on Wall Street, jobs and the economy, the housing market, personal finance and money investments and much more on ABC News. RMGs are the finished textile product from clothing factories and the Bangladeshi RMG sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in the Bangladeshi economy, with a growth rate of 55% from to Exports of textiles, clothing, and ready-made garments (RMG) accounted for 77% of Bangladesh's total merchandise exports in By the (RMG) industry was the only multibillion-dollar.
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