Posted on January 6, by Scott Alexander [Epistemic status: Content warning for discussion of suicide, murder, and race] I. There was a mass shooting — this time, in San Bernardino, California.
An account is not mandatory but suggested. Close Something went wrong when trying to display this form. It is intended only as background material for people who wish to understand theories of grief.
Although Sigmund Freud pioneered the study of mourning, it is only in the last 30 years or so that bereavement research has gained any real prominence. Researchers have now given us several new models and insights to guide and help the bereaved.
But why do we need models? After all, people have been bereaved since human life began and have generally recovered without the help of any model of grieving.
Much of what has been written about how people grieve has focused on individual survivors. Theories of grieving later included an emphasis on differences between pathological complicated and normal uncomplicated grief reactions e.
In discussing anticipatory grief of terminally ill persons she outlines five stages: Many still gravitate to this model for its simple linear approach, using it as a prescription to measure how grief is progressing.
Since its publication, this stage model has been applied to other losses including divorce, chronic illness, and infertility. Although these models have been prominent in the popular media, many scholars have been critical of them Attig Studies have failed to find any discernible sequence of emotional phases of adaptation to loss, or any clear endpoint to grieving.
Rather than a passive climb up a linear staircase, characteristics of grieving may more closely resemble unsteady twisting and turning paths requiring adaptation and change, but with no specific end.
In addition, there is no evidence that someone who deviates from those stages is experiencing pathological grief, so authors have called for a de-emphasis on universal grief syndromes and a recognition of varied practices of subcultural groups.
There also have been many challenges to the concept of grief work that underlies these theories— an assumption that one must do cognitive work to confront the loss and that failure to undergo or complete grief work results in pathological grief.
Here is a sample of some of the theories that have been forwarded over the years: Bowlby provides an explanation for the common human tendency to develop strong affectional bonds.
He views attachment as a reciprocal relationship that occurs as a result of long-term interactions, starting in infancy between a child and its caregivers. He suggests that grief is an instinctive universal response to separation.
Both Bowlby and Parkes suggest that grief is a predictable orderly pattern of responses to a death.
Colin Murray Parkes suggests that grieving is a process, a sequence of reactions to the death of a significant loved one.
The initial shock, resulting in numbness, can last for days, especially when a death is sudden, leading on to intense grief. Physical symptoms such as tightness in the chest, shortness of breath, loss of appetite and insomnia are common.
Lack of concentration and restlessness may also be experienced, as well as feelings of isolation and loneliness. Interspersed with these reactions may be feelings of anger, guilt and fear.
Fear can manifest itself as insecurity, a desire to escape from reality, and anxiety over apparent trivialities, leading sometimes to panic attacks in which the anxiety and fear are overwhelming and disrupt normal living.
Describing grief as a process and not a state, Worden suggested that people need to work through their reactions in order to make a complete adjustment.
The tasks are complete when the bereaved person has integrated the loss into their life and let go of emotional attachments to the deceased, allowing them to invest in the present and the future. Dual process model A more recent and significant advance in our understanding of grief work is the dual process model developed by Stroebe and SchutThey suggested that avoiding grief may be both helpful and detrimental, depending on the circumstances.
While previous models centred on loss, the dual process model recognises that both expressing and controlling feelings are important — and it introduces a new concept, that of oscillation between coping behaviours.
This model identifies two types of stressors, loss- and restoration-oriented, and a dynamic, regulatory coping process of oscillation, whereby the grieving individual at times confronts, at other times avoids, the different tasks of grieving.
Grief is thus viewed as a dynamic process in which there is an alternation between focusing on the loss of the person who has died loss orientation and avoiding that focus restoration orientation. The loss orientation encompasses grief work, while the restoration orientation involves dealing with secondary losses as a result of the death.
For instance, an older widow may have to deal with finances, and house maintenance, which previously her husband dealt with. Both the loss orientation and the restoration orientation are necessary for future adjustment, but the degree and emphasis on each approach will depend on the circumstances of the death, personality, gender and cultural background of each person.
The model also posits that by taking time off from the pain of grief, which can be overwhelming, a bereaved person may be more able to cope with their daily life and the secondary changes to it. It is also important to recognise that the bereaved do not need to forget and leave the deceased behind, but can integrate them into their future lives by means of a continuing bond.
Klass and his colleagues suggest that the purpose of grieving is instead to maintain a continuing bond with the deceased, compatible with other, new and continuing relationships. Families making sense of death While most research and most models of grief has focused on the individual, understanding the family dynamic is often of great importance for counsellors in identifying possible tensions between members and assessing how members may influence or be influenced by others, as well as understanding what the death means to each member.
Frequently, however, death affects a whole family, in which family members, including children, can influence and be influenced by others, and in which the death may mean different things to each.This paper identifies the implications of five theories of family and individual behaviour for the likely success of policy intervention.
This raises a curious observation: it should really only be kosher to round off >1 digit at a time. If you only know something to the accuracy of , you can’t round to 45, only to 40, because the is already “rounded” within your understanding of its accuracy — it could be a , and therefore the rounding to 45 isn’t appropriate.
"Kubla Khan; or, A Vision in a Dream: A Fragment" / ˌ k ʊ b l ə ˈ k ɑː n / is a poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, completed in and published in A listing of psychological research being conducted online. Loss and Grief.
Loss and grief in nursing is a widely discussed psychosocial theory and in this essay we will look at it further in nursing care. Loss is an inevitable part of life, and grief is a natural part of the healing process, or to be defined individually, “Loss is wider than a response to a death, important as that is.
It is any separation from someone or something whose. Grief Varies with Culture Cross-cultural study looks outward, seeking an opening to the varieties of cultural expression around the world; but it also looks inward, because an understanding of others can enrich our understanding of our own culture.